Bruno

WHO IS BRUNO?
Bruno is a duck-billed dinosaur (hadrosaur).

WHY IS HE CALLED ANTONIO?
He was named after Bruno Zoppolato, the man who had found his bones.

HOW LARGE IS HE?
He is over five meters long; at least one meter longer than Antonio.

HOW OLD IS HE?
Geologically speaking, he is over 70 million years old. As a specimen, he is certainly an adult, but, at least for now, we cannot be more specific about his actual "age".

HOW MUCH DOES HE WEIGH?
Approximately 600 kg.

WHERE WAS HE FOUND?
He was found in Villaggio del Pescatore, province of Trieste, in the same paleontological field that gave us the first complete Italian dinosaur.

WHAT KIND OF ENVIRONMENT DID HE LIVE IN?
The latest information that the dinosaurs of Villaggio del Pescatore have provided, leads to believe that the coastal transition zone between fresh and salt water had geological structures similar to the "blue holes" (the famous Yucatan cenotes). Structures like these usually form in limestone environments, therefore we can imagine vast areas of emerged lands that connected with the warm, shallow sea and coastal karst lakes; this is the type of environment the dinosaurs probably once roamed.

IS HE THE SAME AS ANTONIO?
He is larger and more massive, but he appears to be of the same species.

WHY IS HE LARGER THAN ANTONIO?
The differences can be part of the normal variability between individuals, even among humans there are big and small, but they may also be due to the difference in age or even gender.

WHAT DID HE EAT?
He was an herbivorous dinosaur, which means he ate vegetables that he tore with his robust beak and shredded with the well-developed chain of teeth. He, however, did not eat "grass", because the grass as we know it today, was not there at the time.

WHEN WAS HE FOUND?
The larger part of the skeleton was found, and excavated, in 1998. The skull was dug up in May 2018, and the tail in the summer of 2019.

IS THE SKELETON WHOLE?
Apart from a few parts, which are naturally missing due to the surface erosion of the reservoir, the dinosaur is about 70% complete.

IS THE SKULL COMPLETE?
Apart from the area cut with the diamond wire, the skull is 100% complete.

HOW LONG DID IT TAKE TO PREPARE IT?
Three people worked for more than four months; over 2200 hours.

HOW WAS IT PREPARED?
The bones were frequently split in half, so the most complex task was assembling the blocks that formed the skeleton. The chemical preparation was limited due to this fragmentation, therefore it was necessary to intervene with a proper mechanical approach, using a roughing technique with a chisel and a hammer.

WILL BRUNO PROVIDE ANY NEW DATA FOR SCIENCE?
We are certain he will.

WHO PREPARED ANTONIO'S SKELETON?
The Zoik Srl. company of Trieste; the same company that oversaw the excavation and preparation of Antonio. The establishment worked under the directives of the superintendence for Archaeological Heritage and Landscape of Friuli Venezia Giulia.

WHO DOES ANTONIO BELONG TO?
From 1939, all the fossils are owned by the Italian State and are under the protection of the local superintendence. 

WHERE WILL BRUNO’S FINAL RESTING PLACE BE?
Bruno’s home will be the Museum of Natural History of Trieste, where he can be situated near Antonio.
The restoration work was accomplished by Zoic Srl;
Technical director: Dr. Flavio Bacchia
Paleontological restoration: Tullio Perentin, Paolo Cinquemani, Manfredi Musumeci, Giorgio Noliani
Editing: Starc Tomas

BRUNO’s SCIENTIFIC DATA:
KINGDOM: Animalia
PHYLUM: Chordata
SUPERORDER: Dinosauria
ORDER: Ornithischia
SUBORDER: Ornithopoda
FAMILY: Hadrosauridae
GENUS: Thethyshadros
SPECIES: Thethysadros insularis
FINDING:
COUNTRY: Italy
REGION: Friuli Venezia Giulia
PROVINCE: Trieste
MUNICIPALITY: Duino Aurisina
LOCATION: Villaggio del Pescatore
YEAR: 1998

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